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重庆保安公司浅析正当防卫

来源:http://www.cqzhongtebao.com  发布时间:2018-10-11
正当防卫定义:是指为了使国家、公共利益、本人或者他人的人身、财产权利免受正在进行的不法侵害,而对不法侵害者所实施的不明显超过必要限度的损害行为。
Definition of legitimate defense: refers to the act of infringing upon the wrongful infringer without obviously exceeding the necessary limit in order to protect the state, public interests, personal and property rights of oneself or others from the ongoing unlawful infringement.
(一)正当防卫的起因条件---必须有不法侵害行为发生。
(1) the cause of justifiable defense - there must be an unlawful act.
1、必须有不法侵害行为发生。对合法行为不能实施防卫。
1, there must be unlawful infringement. No defence can be imposed on lawful behavior.
2、不法侵害行为必须是真实存在的,而不是假想的。没有不法侵害,行为人误以为有不法侵害发生而实施所谓的防卫,称为假想防卫。假想防卫,则看行为人主观上有无罪过而确定行为人是否承担刑事责任。
2, unlawful acts must be real, not imaginary. If there is no unlawful infringement and the perpetrator mistakenly assumes that the unlawful infringement has occurred, the so-called defense is called hypothetical defense. Hypothetical defense depends on the actor's subjective innocence and determines whether the actor is liable for criminal responsibility.
3、不法侵害行为通常应是人的不法行为。
3, unlawful infringement usually should be human's wrongful act.
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(二)正当防卫的时间条件---不法侵害行为正在进行。 即已经开始,尚未结束。如果不符合这个时间条件的防卫,称为防卫不适时。防卫不适时,有两种:不法侵害尚未开始就实施防卫,叫事前防卫;不法侵害行为已经结束实施的防卫,叫事后防卫。防卫不适时,属于故意犯罪。
(two) the time condition of justifiable defense - the act of unlawful infringement is in progress. It has already begun and has not yet ended. If we do not comply with the defense of this time condition, we call it defenses untimely. There are two kinds of defense when the defense is not comfortable: the illegal infringement has not begun to implement defense, called pre-defense; the illegal infringement has ended the implementation of defense, called post-defense. Defenses are not timely and are intentional crimes.
(三)正当防卫的对象条件---只能对不法侵害者本人实施。如果对第三者实施,属于故意犯罪。
(three) the object condition of justifiable defense can only be applied to the unlawful infringer himself. If the third party is implemented, it is an intentional crime.
(四) 正当防卫的主观条件---防卫意图。即行为人必须有正当的防卫意图,是为了保护公共利益、本人或者他人的权益,而决意制不法侵害。 如果没有防卫意图的防 卫挑拨、互相斗殴、为保护非法利益而实行的防卫都不是正当防卫。但在特殊情况下,应允许互相斗殴的一方实施正当防卫。
(four) the subjective condition of justifiable defense - defense intention. That is, the perpetrator must have a legitimate intention to defend, in order to protect the public interest, the rights and interests of oneself or others, and the determination system of unlawful infringement. If there is no defensive intent to provoke, fight each other, to protect the illegal interests of the defense are not legitimate defense. However, under special circumstances, the one who should fight with each other should be allowed to carry out self-defence.
(五) 正当防卫的限度条件---防卫行为不能明显超过 必要限度造成重大损害。 要求行为人的防卫行为是制止不法侵害行为所必须的,同时,防卫的手段、强度同侵 害行为的手段、强度之间,防卫人对侵害人所造成的后果同侵害行为可能赞成的危害结果之间基本相适应,不能明显超过必要限度,造成重大损害。 如果符合其他 四个条件,但是超过了必要限度的防卫行为,称为防卫过当。根据防卫过当的行为人主观上的罪过形式,确定其行为构成何罪。其罪过形式一般为过失,也可以为间 接故意。因此,其行为可能构成过失致死罪、间接故意杀人罪等,不能认为构成防卫过当罪。防卫过当的,应当减轻或者免除处罚。
(5) The limitation of justifiable defence - the act of defence cannot obviously exceed the necessary limit and cause serious damage. Require the perpetrator's defensive act is necessary to stop the illegal infringement. At the same time, between the means and intensity of defense and the means and intensity of the infringement, the consequences caused by the defender to the infringer and the harmful consequences that the infringement may approve of are basically compatible, and can not obviously exceed the necessary limits, resulting in significant. Damage. If it complies with the other four conditions, but the defense beyond the necessary limits is called defensive excessive. According to the subjective offense form of the defended actor, he determines his crime. The form of fault is usually negligence or indirect intent. Therefore, its behavior may constitute the crime of negligent death, indirect intentional homicide and so on, can not be considered to constitute the crime of excessive defense. Those who are too defensive must be mitigated or exempted from punishment.

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